The refractive tests include:
• Measurement of visual acuity using Snellen letter and illiterate E- chart,and Times Roman reading types.
• Accurate determination of presbyopic additions and other near corrections.
• Near vision astigmatism tests.
• Amplitude of accommodation including monocular measurements under binocular conditions.
The Binocular balance tests include:
• Fixation disparity test for uncompensated heterophoria motor eye dominance. Accommodation-convergence relationship.
• Quantitative evaluation of foveal suppression in heterophoria patients.
• Near point of convergence.
• Targets for subjective cover tests for heterophoria and harmonious ARC.